**Mathematical Definition**

**Input Domain**

The function is defined on input domain i.e. x ∈ [−100, 100] and y ∈ [−100, 100].

**Global Minima**

The function has one global minimum f(z) = 0 at z = (0, 0).

**Characteristics**

This function is unimodal.

The function is continuous.

The function is not convex.

The function is differentiable.

The function is non-separable.

The function is defined on 2-dimensional space.

**Python Implementation**

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**import** matplotlib.pyplot **as** plt
**import** numpy **as** np
**from** matplotlib **import** cm
**def** f(x,y): # Defines the function
num = (np.sin((x**2 + y**2)**2)**2) - 0.5
den = (1 + 0.001*(x**2 + y**2))**2
**return** 0.5 + num/den
X = np.linspace(-50,50)
Y = np.linspace(-50,50)
x,y = np.meshgrid(X,Y) # Makes a rough mesh in which graph will be plotted
F = f(x,y)
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(9,9))
ax = plt.axes(projection='3d')
graph = ax.contour3D(x,y, F,450,cmap = cm.jet)
# There are many color options to choose from
# colourmaps like jet, rainbow, cube_helix and many more
ax.set_title('SCHAFFER N.1 FUNCTION') #Title of the graph
fig.colorbar(graph, shrink=0.5, aspect=8) #Gives a color bar
ax.set_xlabel('X') #Labling axes
ax.set_ylabel('Y')
ax.set_zlabel('F')
ax.set_xlim(50,-50) #Setting axes limit
ax.set_ylim(50,-50)
ax.view_init(4,4) # Viewing angle of graph
plt.show()

**References:**

[1] Jamil, Momin, and Xin-She Yang. "A literature survey of benchmark functions for global optimization problems." *International Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Optimization* 4.2 (2013): 150-194.

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