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Python Implementation of SCHAFFER FUNCTION

Updated: Jul 18, 2021

Mathematical Definition

Input Domain

The function is defined on input domain i.e. x ∈ [−100, 100] and y ∈ [−100, 100].

Global Minima

The function has one global minimum f(z) = 0 at z = (0, 0).


This function is unimodal.

The function is continuous.

The function is not convex.

The function is differentiable.

The function is non-separable.

The function is defined on 2-dimensional space.

Python Implementation

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import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from matplotlib import cm
def f(x,y):                          # Defines the function
        num = (np.sin((x**2 + y**2)**2)**2) - 0.5
        den = (1 + 0.001*(x**2 + y**2))**2 
 return 0.5 + num/den
X = np.linspace(-50,50)
Y = np.linspace(-50,50)
x,y = np.meshgrid(X,Y) # Makes a rough mesh in which graph will be plotted
F = f(x,y)
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(9,9))
ax = plt.axes(projection='3d')
graph = ax.contour3D(x,y, F,450,cmap = cm.jet)    
# There are many color options to choose from
# colourmaps like jet, rainbow, cube_helix and many more
ax.set_title('SCHAFFER N.1 FUNCTION')         #Title of the graph
fig.colorbar(graph, shrink=0.5, aspect=8)  #Gives a color bar
ax.set_xlabel('X')                           #Labling axes
ax.set_xlim(50,-50)                         #Setting axes limit
ax.view_init(4,4)                           # Viewing angle of graph


[1] Jamil, Momin, and Xin-She Yang. "A literature survey of benchmark functions for global optimization problems." International Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Optimization 4.2 (2013): 150-194.

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