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# HIMMELBLAU FUNCTION

Mathematical Definition

Input Domain

The function is defined on input range xi ∈[−6, 6] for i=1, 2.

Global Minima

The Himmelblau Function has four identical local minimum at:

• f(x∗)=0 at x∗=(3, 2)

• f(x∗)=0 at x∗=(−2.805118, 3.283186)

• f(x∗)=0 at x∗=(−3.779310, −3.283186)

• f(x∗)=0 at x∗=(3.584458, −1.848126)

The function has one local maximum at x=-0.270845 and y=-0.923039 where f(x, y)=181.617.

Description and Features

This function is named after David Mautner Himmelblau who introduced it. The Himmelblau Function is defined on the two dimensional space, used to test the performance of optimization algorithms such as:

• Convergence rate

• Precision

• Robustness

The Himmelblau function is a

• Multi-modal function

• Non-separable

• Non-convex

• Continuous

Python Implementation

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% Author: RIYA SHIVHARE

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from mpl_toolkits import mplot3d

def f(x,y):
return (((x**2+y-11)**2) + (((x+y**2-7)**2)))

X=np.linspace(-6,6)
Y=np.linspace(-6,6)

x,y=np.meshgrid(X,Y)
F=f(x,y)

fig =plt.figure(figsize=(9,9))
ax=plt.axes(projection='3d')
ax.contour3D(x,y,F,450)

ax.set_xlabel('X')
ax.set_ylabel('Y')
ax.set_zlabel('F')
ax.set_title('Himmelblau Function')
ax.view_init(50,50)

#plt.contour(x,y,F,15)
plt.show()
```

References:

[1] Jamil, Momin, and Xin-She Yang. "A literature survey of benchmark functions for global optimization problems." International Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Optimization 4.2 (2013): 150-194.